They found what remained of Wallace Berryman buried in an unmarked grave at Carlisle Barracks.
Construction workers digging for a water line in 1940 discovered the skeleton of a 20-year-old Native American man.
While it has been assumed the body was near the original Carlisle Indian School cemetery, there are no documents specifying the precise location of the recovery site.
Only later were experts able to identify the bones as Berryman — the last of the Indian school students disinterred and moved to the present-day Carlisle Barracks Post Cemetery on Claremont Road.
The Army Corps of Engineers in late July released an archival research report on the current cemetery located next to the main public entrance to Carlisle Barracks and the U.S. Army War College.
The release of this information came just weeks before the scheduled Aug. 8 disinterment of the remains of three Northern Arapaho boys who died in the early 1880s while attending the Indian school. The Army National Military Cemeteries is honoring the requests of three families.
The recent Army report includes a detailed inventory of all the people believed to be buried in the post cemetery. They include Native American children and young adults whose remains were relocated from the original cemetery, which was in the vicinity of Root Hall, the main academic building of the War College.
Information on the discovery of Berryman’s grave originated from a quartermasters report dated Aug. 9, 1940. That report came after the remains were reinterred into the post cemetery on July 11, 1940.
Dickinson College has an ongoing project where Indian school student records stored at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., are scanned into a digital resource center at carlisleindian.dickinson.edu.
Prior to the release of the Army report, The Sentinel conducted an extensive cross-check of all the names of known Indian school students buried in the post cemetery with the online student records accessible through the college.
The vast majority of the corresponding records are sketchy at best with a student information card as the only document in the file. There are a handful of cases where there are more documents available.
Wallace Berryman, for example, has an extensive file that includes his information card, medical reports, enrollment application and records of his outings, off-campus employment opportunities for students to work on a farm or learn a trade.
And while some records refer to him as "Wallace Derryman," including the grave marker bares that names, school records refer to the person as Berryman.
An orphan, Berryman was a full-blooded Seminole Indian who arrived at Carlisle Barracks on Aug. 30, 1906, from Shawnee, Okla. He was brought to the school by a Miss Sadie Robertson.
Berryman was 20 years old the day he arrived. He weighed about 128 lbs. and stood five-feet-four-inches tall. A medical exam conducted the day of his arrival found him to be “physically sound.”
He ran away from the school on Nov. 14, 1906, but was brought back the next day. Berryman had signed on to a five-year commitment as a student.
On March 2, 1907, he was asked a series of questions about his background and aspirations. His answers were compiled on what appears to be a standardized form. It is unknown whether the words were written in his handwriting or that of the surveyor.
“When you leave Carlisle do you expect to return home? Don’t know."
“What do you expect to do for your livelihood? Farming”
“Have you previously worked at farming? Yes”
“How long? 2 summers"
“Have you worked at a trade? No”
Out and about
A month later, on April 8, 1907, Berryman was assigned to his first outing working for John Ludt of Carlisle until April 7, 1908. A report card gave him “Good” marks for “Ability” and “Conduct."
On May 1, Berryman left for his second assignment, this time working for George Robbins of Morrisville, Bucks County. This outing ended on Aug. 29, 1908.
Berryman then returned to Carlisle, where he stayed until Nov. 5, 1908, when he was outsourced to work for Samuel Hibbs of Oxford Valley, Bucks County. There is some confusion in the documents.
While the “Historical Record of Student” lists Nov. 5 as the start date, the “Outing Record” filled out by Hibbs has the start date as Oct. 5, 1908. Berryman received “Good” grades for “Conduct,” “Ability” and “Health” in July and August 1809, and he also earned $15.15 from his host.
This second outing continued until Aug. 28, 1909, when Berryman returned to Carlisle. He ran away a second time on Dec. 8, 1909, but was found and brought back to the campus three days later. Four months later, on April 6, 1910, Berryman was sent out on his third outing, his second one as a laborer for Hibbs.
The host gave Berryman “Good” grades for “Conduct” and “Ability” in April 1910, but recorded a “Poor” grade in the category of “Health.” The following month, Hibbs graded Berryman as “Good” in all three categories, but he was transferred back to Carlisle around May 13, 1910.
The “Historical Record” lists Berryman as being admitted to a hospital for an operation. While there was no word on the outcome of the procedure, Berryman survived and continued as a student for another two months.
The performance of each student was graded in three categories: “Academic Department,” “Industrial Department” and “Dormitory.” There were subcategories under each.
In early July 1910, Berryman received a “Good” grade in academic scholarship and an “Excellent” grade in conduct. While no grade was recorded for the Industrial Department, Berryman received a “Good” grade for Neatness and “Very Good” grade for his conduct in the dormitory. According to his information, Berryman died on July 12, 1910.
Henry Rose is another Indian school student buried in the post cemetery that has an extensive student file accessible on the Dickinson College website.
An orphan, Rose was a full-blooded Eskimo Indian who arrived at Carlisle on Oct. 5, 1903, when he was 17-years-old. He weighed in at about 130 lbs. and stood five-feet-seven-inches tall.
Trained as a carpenter, Rose entered the Indian school with a first-grade education and died as a fifth-grader on Aug. 4, 1907. He was a member of the Methodist faith.
Rose had six outings from June 4, 1904, to July 3, 1907, with host families in Bucks and Lancaster counties. His file also includes a Sept. 22, 1911, letter addressed to Indian School Superintendent Moses Friedman from an S.H. Rock of the Bureau of Education, Alaska School Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
The name “S.H. Rock” also appears as a host in Lititz, Lancaster County, of two of the six outings Rose went on as a student before his death. The first of those outings was April 5 to Sept. 7, 1905, while the second was from June 30 to Sept. 5, 1906.
In the 1911 letter, Rock mentioned that he came to Alaska in late 1906 and that in 1907 he received a letter from an Indian school staffer asking for an address for Peter Rose, Henry’s brother.
It had taken authorities almost four years to forward money saved in Henry’s student account to his next of kin. The personal effects of Henry Rose also included a trunk of clothing that was supposed to go to Peter.
Rock wrote Friedman about the whereabouts of this trunk after Peter had traveled about 300 miles from the Nushagak River region of southwestern Alaska.
“I, of course, told him that I had received no trunk but he is not satisfied so I told him I would write to you,” Rock wrote. “You will let him know about it. Now will you please do so and let Peter know what to expect or not to expect.”
There were no documents explaining the outcome of this request.